Thiruvananthapuram – Where God Was the King


The trendy Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of the attractive land of Kerala and was previously often called Trivandrum. Below the royal rule of the Venad Royal household, it was referred to as Thiruvithamkoor and in addition recognized by its anglicized identify Travancore.It was one of many oldest inhabited locations in India. Positioned on the west coast of India close to the intense south of the mainland, it was at all times the political nerve centre of Kerala. Dominated by a few of the strongest and liberal rulers, its life was at all times centered on the Padmanabha Swamy temple whose presiding deity is Sree Padmanabha or Vishnu. In accordance with the Hindu mythology, the cosmic trinity consisted of Brahma-the creator, Shiva-the destroyer and Vishnu-the preserver. In an progressive extra to pre-empt any invasions by native rivals, one of many strongest rulers Marthanda Varma consecrated the “thrippadidhanam” within the seventeenth century. In accordance with this, the lord Vishnu was topped because the precise ruler of the dominion and the king turned his servant ‘Padmanabha Dasa”. With this, Sri Padmanabha turned the “precise” head of the state of Travancore, assuming the title Perumal or the Emperor. The ladies people of the royal household have been often called “Padmanabha Dasinis” once more feminine servants of the lord Padmanabha. In an orthodox Hindu society, attacking the lord’s kingdom would have been sacrilege. Individuals did and do truly consider that the lord has been administering Thiruvananthapuram and appearing by the up to date ruler. The British Authorities saluted the Lord with a 21-gun salute, a army custom of colonial days, which was continued by the Indian Military till the abolition of the privy purses (in a approach de-legitimizing any royal claims), by Authorities of India when Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. The royal insignia of the Lord, the Valampiri Shankhu or dextral conch-shell, served because the State emblem of Travancore and even continued so for a while after the re-organization of the States. Sri Padmanabha continues to be considered the presiding deity of Thiruvananthapuram.

The identify Thiruvananthapuram could also be cut up into three-Thiru- Anantha-Puram, which suggests town of the Holy Anantha. Anantha is the legendary, cosmic serpent with a thousand heads, on whose coils Lord Vishnu (Padmanabha) reclines. Although the temple had existed lengthy earlier than, it was rebuilt and delivered to prominence by the King Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal household when, in 1745, he shifted the Travancore capital from Padamanabhapuram within the south (right this moment within the neighboring State of Tamil Nadu) to Thiruvananthapuram. As talked about earlier having performed the “thrippadidhanam” he began reigning as ‘Padmanabha Dasa’, the servant and consultant of Lord Padmanabha–perhaps a nobler variant of the ‘Divine Proper Principle’ that the West is conversant in.

The traditional land of Thiruvananthapuram was constructed upon seven hills and having performed a significant function in Kerala politics has saved tempo with evolution and right this moment has grown right into a sprawling metropolis. But, she nonetheless retains her previous glory and previous allure, that’s seen from the previous quarter of town clustered in and across the East Fort, a protected landmark that dates again to the Royal days. What maybe is particular in regards to the atmosphere of Thiruvananthapuram is the fantastic mix of the strongly conventional, the nostalgically Colonial and the outright fashionable parts, be it in structure, in meals or within the costume and manners of her folks.

Including to its legend and stature is the idea that the ships of King Solomon landed on ones of its outstanding ports referred to as Ophir (fashionable identify Poovar) in 1036 BC. Nonetheless, the traditional political and cultural historical past of town was nearly solely unbiased from that of the remainder of Kerala.

The rise of recent Thiruvananthapuram started with accession of Marthanda Varma in 1729 because the founding ruler of the princely state of Travancore. Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital of Travancore in 1745. The town developed into a significant mental and creative centre throughout this era. The golden age within the metropolis’s historical past was in the course of the mid nineteenth century below the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal (the nice musician) and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal.

With the tip of the British rule in India in 1947, the glory days of the royal rule have been lastly over and Travancore (the dominion was initially referred to as such) was merged with the Indian union. The state of Kerala was shaped on November 1, 1956 and in accordance with its stature, Thiruvananthapuram turned the capital of the brand new state.

Regardless of a royal previous, Thiruvananthapuram has saved up with the occasions. Other than having the delight of being the capital of India’s most literate and socially developed state, Thiruvananthapuram is a strategically essential metropolis in Southern India. With a fledgling nation desperately wanting to determine itself within the subject of science, selected Thiruvananthapuram to be the cradle of India’s formidable and now profitable house programme. The presence of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1962, the primary Indian house rocket was developed and launched from the Vikram Sarabhai House Centre (VSSC) positioned within the outskirts of town in 1963. A number of institutions of the Indian House Analysis Group (ISRO) have been later established in Thiruvananthapuram. It is usually essential from the army logistics and civil aviation viewpoint falling below the worldwide air route. It is usually very near the worldwide transport route and East-West transport axis.

The institution of Technopark-India’s first IT Park in 1995 helped in its metamorphosis as a contemporary metropolis. Technopark has developed into the biggest IT Park in India and third largest in Asia and is house to a few of the international IT giants and has fostered the event of the “data warrior”. It employs greater than 50,000 such warriors and these extremely paid folks have additionally contributed to its financial uplift. Thiruvananthapuram was and can at all times stay a outstanding and contemporarily essential location on the map of India.


Positioned at 8°30?N76°54?E? /?8.5°N 76.9°E? / 8.5; 76.9 on the west coast, close to the southern tip of mainland India, Thiruvananthapuram is constructed on hills by the ocean shore. The town and the suburbs cowl an space of about 250 sq. kilometers, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. The typical elevation is 16 ft from the ocean stage. District Space: 2192 km².

The world will be divided into two geographical areas, the lowlands, midlands and highlands. The lowland is a slim stretch comprising shorelines, rivers and deltas, dotted with coconut palms. Vellayani Lake, greatest contemporary water lake within the district is within the suburbs of town. The main rivers that move by town are the Karamana River, and the Killi River. The midland area contains low hills and valleys adjoining the Ghats. The jap suburbs of town fall inside the highlands, whose highest level within the district is the Agasthyakudam which rises 1890 m above sea stage. Ponmudi and Mukkunimala are hill-stations close to town.

The regal land is blessed with an extended shoreline, dotted with internationally famend seashores, historic monuments, backwater stretches and a wealthy cultural heritage changing this right into a a lot wanted vacationer vacation spot. With a convention relationship again to 1000BC, lies on a small strip of land with loads of coconut & palm timber, and an energetic buying and selling publish for spices, sandalwood, ivory and so on.


Thiruvananthapuram has a wealthy cultural background because of the rulers of erstwhile Travancore, who took an energetic curiosity within the improvement of arts and tradition. Thiruvananthapuram has produced a number of nice artists, essentially the most well-known ones being Maharaja Swathi Thirunal (musician) and Raja Ravi Varma (painter). Maharaja Swathi Thirunal was an incredible composer and performed a significant function within the improvement of Carnatic music. There’s a music school in his identify within the metropolis – Swathi Thirunal School of Music. Raja Ravi Varma was an illustrious painter of worldwide renown. His contributions to Indian artwork are substantial.

Historic historical past

Whereas most elements of Kerala have been dominated by the Brahmin Namboodhiris, Thiruvananthapuram was below the Ay dynasty, a clan recognized for its wealthy conventional and spiritual heritage. The Ays have been the main political energy until the start of the tenth century A.D. and its writ prolonged from Nagerkovil within the South to Thiruvalla within the North. The Ays have been caught in between the fixed and recurring tussle for political energy between the Chera-Chola dynasties (highly effective entities of south India combating for dominance of the area) wars from 999 to 1110 A.D. All the areas have been attacked and sacked by the Chola military, until they have been pressured to retreat to Kottar in 1110 A.D. The annihilation of the Ay dynasty led to the emergence of the rulers of Venad. Below the Ays, essentially the most outstanding metropolis was Vizhinjham which had a well-known port of the identical identify and in addition housed a well-known college (Kanthalur Salai). The Venad rulers arrange environment friendly administrative programs and the dominion noticed its pinnacle below the King, Udaya Marthanda. The Venad rule caused improvement of Kerala right into a capital of artwork and studying. Ravi Varma Kulashekhara was a famend scholar and musician. He turned the mentor for artists, musicians, poets of Thiruvananthapuram. A terrific author himself, he has penned the Sanskrit play “Pradyumnabhyudayam”. The professional-active rule of the Venads made Thiruvananthapuram, the area then recognized by the identify of Travancore, a bustling buying and selling middle.

In accordance with legends, the Padamanabhapuram temple existed from earlier occasions thus lending the land a sure divine sanction. Although the Venad royal household remained the final ruling household within the area, establishing its authority was not a straightforward affair. Since Padmanabhaswami temple was the pivot round which life revolved, buying management of its affair was a strategic prerogative. The tussle between royalty and the standard directors of the temple was inevitable. Throughout their rule, the trustees of the temple (Ettarayogam) turned highly effective sufficient to problem the authority of the rulers. The king Raja Aditya Varma was poisoned by them, and 5 out of six kids of Umayamma Rani have been murdered by them. After the loss of life of Aditya Varma, the dominion was below the regency of Umayamma Rani. Throughout this time, Travancore was invaded by a Mughal adventurer, Mughal Sirdar, forcing the Rani to take refuge in Nedumangad. The Sardar camped within the suburbs of the current day Thiruvananthapuram, until he was defeated by Kerala Varma, a prince from the Kottayam royal household, adopted into the Venad royal household. The Rani was introduced again in triumph to Thiruvananthapuram, however in 1696 A.D., Kottayam Kerala Varma the hero was assassinated by the temple trustees inside the precincts of his personal palace in a daring act. Although finally, by deceit, blood and iron, the management of the temple affairs got here to the palms of the royal household thus finally providing their rule legitimacy. The temple has at all times remained the important thing for sanctity to rule.

The regency of Umayamma Rani was essential within the historical past of Thiruvananthapuram because it was throughout her regency in 1684, that the English East India Firm obtained a sandy piece of land at Anchuthengu (land o the 5 coconut trees-Anjengo (anglicized) on the ocean coast, about 32 km north of Thiruvananthapuram metropolis, for erecting a manufacturing facility and fortifying it. The place had earlier been frequented by the Portuguese and later by the Dutch. It was from right here that the English steadily prolonged their area to different elements of Thiruvithamkoor anglicized as Travancore. One could say this transaction with the British finally proved a turning level for the Venad royal household because the British finally took management of the affairs of the area with very restricted powers left within the palms of its unique rulers.

Although Portuguese have been the primary Europeans to land on the West coast of Kerala within the early sixteenth century, it was the Dutch who constructed dominated the commerce. By the center of 1600, the Dutch had entrenched themselves firmly in Travancore. Their dominance was disturbed by the invasion of the Mysore strongman Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. With the ascension of Marthanda Varma and his robust rule actually drove the Dutch out from the area. The exit of the Dutch led the best way for the British domination. With south Indian rulers weakened by fixed wars, the British noticed a possibility for itself. They began their marketing campaign to oust all of the European nations buying and selling within the area by the tip 1600s they ended up not simply as dominant merchants however as rulers of most elements of the Kerala together with the Travancore. The one resistance to British dominance was put up by the French which was successfully thwarted. The East India Firm had lastly “arrived” in Kerala. It was an extended journey “having began with a small “manufacturing facility” at Anchuthengu-a small sandy strip, purchased from then ruler Umayamma Rani, they ended up as rulers. Although the Venad household continued as regal heads with diluted powers primarily associated to agrarian affairs, until the independence of India on fifteenth August, 1947, it was the British who have been really kings.

Conclusion: Regardless of the ascendancy of some robust rulers like Marthanda Varma, the politics and economic system of Kerala was dominated by international powers predominantly Europeans. Even “God” who was the “actual” ruler could not stop this domination by international powers. In a approach, Thiruvananthapuram’s historical past is Kerala’s historical past in flip India’s historical past.

Padmanabha Swamy Temple-the axis mundi

A should on each vacationer’s itinerary, the traditional Padmanabhaswami temple is believed to be one of many 108 shrines (divyadesams) sacred to the Vaishnavites (followers of God Vishnu) in India. Structure has the facility of dominating the thoughts of the plenty and the sheer dimension of its 100-feet-high (with seven tales) gopuram (tower) hovering majestically skywards doesn’t fail to evoke an awe-inspiring expertise. Inside its hallowed precincts, the primary pavilion impresses with its 400 lovely pillars carved out of granite. The temple has a hall with 365 and one-quarter sculptured granite-stone pillars with elaborate carvings. This hall extends from the jap facet into the sanctum sanctorum.The stone basement of the tower is roofed with elaborate sculptures and the masonry above is replete with decorative works of figures from the Puranas and different historical Hindu scriptures. Tapering in direction of the highest, it bears the statue of Garuda, the car of Lord Vishnu. The temple stands by the facet of a tank, referred to as Padma Theertham (that means spring of the lotus). An eighty-foot flag-staff stands in entrance of the primary entry from the ‘prakaram’ (hall). The bottom flooring below the gopuram (predominant entrance within the jap facet) is called the ‘Nataka-Shala’ the place the well-known temple artwork, Kathakali was staged within the night time in the course of the ten-day uthsavam (competition) carried out twice a yr, in the course of the Malayalam months of Meenam and Thulam.

Nicely guarded with numerous huge doorways, the sanctum sanctorum or Garbhagriha is carved out of a single stone and therefore referred to as “Ottakkal Mandapam” (that means pavilion carved out of a single rock). To be able to carry out darshan and puja, one has to climb on to the “Ottakkal Mandapam”. The deity is big and is seen by three doorways – Face of the Lord and Siva Linga beneath his hand within the first door, Brahma seated on lotus emanating from the Lord’s navel together with the “Uthsava Moorthi” and idols of Lord Maha Vishnu, Sridevi and Bhudevi within the second door and the Lord’s ft within the third door. The deity, Padmanabha, is depicted Mendacity in a reclining place over the serpent Anantha or Adi Sesha within the type of Maha-Vishnu in Yoganidra posture. This sleep of the lord has been referred to as Anananthasayanam (everlasting cosmic sleep). The serpent has his face pointed upwards, as if having fun with the odor emanating from the lotus held in his left hand. The idol is made up of 10,008 Salagramas (stones from water our bodies thought-about to be symbolic of Vishnu). These Salagramas have been procured from the banks of the river Gandaki in Nepal, introduced with a lot ceremony on elephants.

Solely the King of Travancore could carry out the Namaskaram, or bow prostrate on this “Ottakkal Mandapam”. Because the idol of the Lord can also be on this “Ottakkal Mandapam”, anyone who bows prostrate, or any materials object that’s saved right here, henceforth belongs to the Lord. Right here, the King is named a “Padmanabha Dasa”, or a “servant” of Vishnu.

There are different essential shrines contained in the temple devoted to different Hindu deities like Narasimha, Krishna, Ayyappa, Ganesha, Hanuman, Vishwaksena, Garuda and so on. It was just lately found that the primary idol is solely solid in gold aside from the face and chest. Katu-sarkara-yogam, a darkish coloured ayurvedic paste used to maintain flies and pests away was utilized on all the idol to be able to disguise its intrinsic medium to be able to thwart its looting the Muslim invaders

Retaining with its repute as a centre of energy, a number of kings, queens, different members of royalty and the Aristocracy have additionally constructed their palaces and mansions in and across the temple. It might be mentioned that the area across the temple shaped the sanctum sanctorum of Thiruvananthapuram.


Padmanabhaswami Temple stands at a spot thought-about as one of many seven Parashurama Kshetras; texts together with the Puranas, notably the Skanda Purana and Padma Purana, have references for this shrine. In accordance with custom, it’s positioned on the place the place Vishnu revealed himself to sages Divakara Swami and Vilvamangalam Swami. There are a lot of legends concerning the origin of the temple. One story describes {that a} Pulaya (one of many lowest castes within the discriminatory caste system) couple was given the darshan by Vishnu within the kind of a kid. The kid took morsels of rice from the palms of the couple (in these days when Untouchability was practices, the lord taking meals from a Pulaya couple was slightly melodramatic). Throughout this time, the sage Divakara handed by and he recognised the “boy” and he took the primary meals merchandise he noticed which was an Unripe Mango and utilizing a coconut shell as an providing plate, he paid his obeisance. In reminiscence of this legend, even right this moment the naivedyam or the providing to the laity after a pooja is ready from rice and is obtainable to the deity in a coconut shell. One other model describes that the Sage Divakara prayed to the God Krishna for a darshan. Krishna (a manifestation of Vishnu) gave an viewers however within the guise as a small, mischievous boy. The boy swallowed the Salagrama (sacred stone symbolizing God Vishnu) which was being prayed to. The Sage was enraged at this act and chased the boy. He in worry hid himself behind a tree. The tree collapsed and took the type of Vishnu in Anantha Shayanam. However the kind was of terribly giant proportions. The sage was amazed and overwhelmed by this life-altering expertise. He was unable to fathom all the kind resulting from its sheer dimension and pleaded the shape could also be shrunk sufficient for him to see and circumambulate in devotion. The Lord respecting the sage’s imaginative and prescient shrink to a smaller proportion – thrice the size of his employees and informed the sage that he needs to be worshipped by three doorways. These doorways are actually the doorways within the temple by which the idol could also be considered. By the primary door, the worship is obtainable to Shiva; by the second entrance to Brahma on the Lord’s lotus navel, and thru the third is Vishnu’s ft, that are mentioned to result in salvation.


The temple is understood for main festivals. Two of them are celebrated bi-annually-the Alpashy competition in October/November and the Painkuni competition in March/April, lasting for 10 days every. These festivals culminate with the efficiency of the Pallivetta (Royal hunt) and Aarattu (Holy tub) -the two essential rituals held as a part of the festivals in a few of the main temples in Kerala. The distinctiveness of the Aarattu at Sree Padmanabhaswami temple is that the top of the royal household of the erstwhile Travancore kingdom nonetheless escorts the idols in the course of the procession donning his conventional apparel. Throughout Pallivetta the top of the royal household shoots a young coconut utilizing a bow and arrow. This ritual is symbolic of Lord Vishnu looking down the demon of evil in a forest and is held in entrance of the Sundara-vilasam Palace contained in the Thiruvananthapuram fort. The Aarat or the holy tub after taken in a procession to the Shankumugham Seashore. The idols of Padmanabhaswami, Krishna and Narasimha are given a ritual bathe within the sea, after the prescribed poojas. After this ceremony, the idols are taken again to the temple as a procession within the mild of conventional torches, marking the conclusion of the competition. It is usually well-known for Navaratri competition whereby the mom goddess is honored in several manifestations together with that of Saraswati & Durga. This competition lasts for 9 days. The long-lasting Swathi Thirunal (a well-known musician-king) music competition is held yearly throughout this competition that draws musicians from all around the nation and is a musical-feast.

One other greatest competition related to this temple is the “Laksha-deepam”, which suggests the lighting of 100 thousand lamps. This distinctive competition is exclusive and occurs as soon as in 6 years. In preparation of the competition, prayers from the Vedas (holy texts of the Hindus) are recited for 56 days and with the graduation of the competition, 100 thousand oil lamps are lit in and across the temple premises. The reflection of the intense gopura is seen on the Padma Theertham and is an superior sight. The final Laksha-deepam was in 2008 and the following one is slated to be held on January 2014

Different outstanding locations to go to (just some of them):

(1) The Napier Museum- it’s named after the previous governor of Madras, Normal John Napier. The constructing with its profusion of gables and turrets is gorgeous and the end result of the artistic ideas of the English architect Chisholm. It’s a product of ecclectical concepts and combines various architectural types. It’s positioned inside the aptly named museum compound and near the long-lasting Kanakakunnu (golden hill) Palace. A repository of fantastic artistic endeavors, it shows uncommon archaeological and historic artifacts together with bronze idols, ivory carvings, Stone sculptures and ornaments relationship from eleventh century to the 18th century. The chief attraction right here is the 250-year-old temple automobile made for Lord Vishnu (Padmanabha), artistically designed and ornamented. Apart from this, objects carved out of wooden, fashions of temple, vintage jewellery, and so on., make the museum value a go to. The museum higher often called Thiruvananthapuram museum or Artwork museum was in-built 1855 making it the oldest in Kerala.

(2) Sree Chithra Artwork Gallery can also be positioned inside the Museum compound and shows a uncommon assortment of work. Its predominant sights are work by Raja Ravi Varma, Nicholas Roerich, Rabindranath Tagore, Jamimi Roy, Okay. Okay. Hebar, together with miniatures from the Rajput and Mughal faculties of portray and the well-known Tanjore work encrusted with semi-precious stones and mural work typifying malayali tradition. It additionally displays work from all over the world together with China, Japan, Tibet and Bali. It was inaugurated the KingChithira Thirunal in 1935. Crucial assortment consists of uncommon mural work relationship again to the pre historic time. The Sree Chithra Enclave is positioned adjoining to the gallery. It is a museum that depicts the historical past of the Travancore Royal Household and shows their private belongings and artifacts together with previous newspaper clippings.

(3) Palace museum also referred to as the Kuthira Malika (Puthenmalika) Palace: It islocated on the jap entrance of the Padmanabhaswami temple. It has a great assortment of many vintage gadgets used in the course of the reign of the Travancore kings. The museum is nicely maintained and has artifacts, work, wooden carvings, big chandeliers, Belgian glass mirrors, marble sculptures, weapons, portraits of Travancore kings & their thrones. Being an erstwhile royal constructing constructed by well-known musician-King Swathi Thirunal in 1844, it is usually a stroll into the haloed residence of the kings. The constructing is named Kuthiramalika(Horse palace) as a result of the palace exterior has plenty of wood horse figures carved into it. This lovely, two storied, 80-room palace was constructed based mostly on the standard Kerala structure.

(4) The Kanakakunnu Palace. The crimson and white coloured Palace is among the main vacationer sights of town. It’s positioned nicely inside its centre. Positioned moreover the Napier Museum, it’s an architectural traditional is usually the venue for exhibitions and cultural applications. It was initially commissioned by the then Travancore King, Moolam Thirunal and constructed on the crest of a small hill surrounded by meadows and grooves, it was used to carry royal banquets.

(5) Navarathri Mandapam: It islocated adjoining to the Padmanabha Swami temple, close to the Kuthira Malika Palace. It’s the venue of the 10-day annual Navarathri celebrations.

(6) Sree Parashurama Temple, Thiruvallam- The temple lies six kilometers south from town, on the Thiruvananthapuram-Kovalam highway. In accordance with the prevailing native traditions, this temple is2000 years previous temple and lies on the banks of Karamana River. Origin myths of Kerala attribute its creation to the warrior-sage Parashurama (an avatar of lord Vishnu). It’s the solely temple in Kerala devoted to him. Ancestor-worship being extensively prevalent in Kerala, that is “the” spot for ‘Balitharpanam’ (annual providing to lifeless for the peace of their soul). The temple is a protected monument and had been dated again to the thirteenth century.

(7) Shanmugham Seashore- One other splendid seaside, it’s positioned near the airport 8 kilometers from town. It’s the greatest place to look at sundown. The well-known 35 m lengthy “Matsya Kanyaka’ (the mermaid) sculpture designed by the native artist Kanayi Kunjiraman is an added attraction right here. One may even see a number of palaces, previous pavilions and so on in and across the seaside.

(8) Kovalam- The long-lasting seaside of Kerala often called the “Paradise of the South”, is positioned 16 kilometers from Thiruvananthapuram metropolis has been on the vacationers’ radar for the reason that 1930’s. The identify in native vernacular means “a grove of coconut timber” and true to its identify the village provides an countless sight of coconut timber. It consists of two adjoining beaches- ‘Samudra’ and the ‘Howah’. The Howah seaside has black sand and is a distinction to the pristine white sands of Kovalam. There may be an Lighthouse that stands as a sentinel to the previous occasions when service provider ships from different lands would arrive for buying and selling. These seashores are near the Vizhinjham port.

(9) Vizhinjham Rock Reduce Cave Temple: relationship backto the18th century, these cave temples are devoted to Vinandhara Dakshinamurthi (a benevolent manifestation of the destroyer among the many Hindu trinity lord Shiva). It’s about 17 kilometers from the Thiruvananthapuram metropolis. Positioned between a small nicely maintained backyard, it additionally has sculptures associated to Lord Siva and Parvathy. The cave is a current discovery.

(10) Varkala: it is a vital Hindu pilgrimage middle on this area. Its fame originates from the presence of the ‘Papanasham’ (Papanasham means redemption from sins or destruction of sins) seaside, The Janardhana Swami Temple (2000 years previous in line with “legends”) and Sivagiri. The Papanasham seaside also referred to as the Varkala seaside lies 45 kilometers away from Thiruvananthapuram. It is usually preferrred for viewing the sundown. Crimson laterite cliffs’ overlooking the seaside is the primary attraction. In accordance with mythology, the sage Naradha created the place Varkala together with his ‘Valkalam’ (material fabricated from the bark of a tree), and he suggested his disciples to wish sitting alongside the seashore for his or her salvation. The Janardhana Swami temple deifies Lord Siva, Lord Krishna and Hanuman as essential deities. Although non-Hindus will not be permitted to enter the inside sanctum of the temple, others can see across the temple. Sivagiri is the ultimate resting place of the nice social reformer Sree Narayana Guru and lies on a hilltop 3 kilometers from Varkala at Sivagiri. A caste-ridden asymmetrical society Kerala was described by Swami Vivekananda as a “madhouse”. It was Narayana Guru who himself belonged to the backward “Ezhava group” who tried successfully to convey a couple of change in such outdated pondering processes. His motto was “one caste”, “one faith” and “One god for complete mankind”. He has been deified and continues to be the image of Kerala’s battle for social equality.

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